Research Articles: All posts by Bryant G. Wood PhD

At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere. Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water. The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is uneven. The main mechanism that brings deep water to the surface is upwelling, which is more common in regions closer to the equator. Upwelling is also influenced by factors such as the topography of the local ocean bottom and coastlines, the climate, and wind patterns. Overall, the mixing of deep and surface waters takes far longer than the mixing of atmospheric CO 2 with the surface waters, and as a result water from some deep ocean areas has an apparent radiocarbon age of several thousand years. Upwelling mixes this “old” water with the surface water, giving the surface water an apparent age of about several hundred years after correcting for fractionation. This is probably because the greater surface area of ocean in the southern hemisphere means that there is more carbon exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere than in the north.

Radiocarbon dating

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From 10,000BC to 2000BC

A peasant could use the shoots emerging from the stump to build a home or heat it. Coppicing—cutting down a tree and harvesting the shoots from the stump four to eight years later—goes back to the Neolithic, about 10, years. In the forest, coppices coexisted with standard trees and other flora and fauna.

Arthur Wood Backstamps, Dates, Backstamps, History, Hallmarks, Potter’s Marks and Patterns Arthur Wood Backstamps & Potter’s Marks The Arthur Wood Pottery was based at the Bradwell Works in Longport, Stoke-on-Trent, the premises of Capper & Wood established in .

This page updated 22 February, www. Note from the Lost Worlds webmaster: This approach works well enough for Modern scientific history but less so for archaic history. Given that the books consulted for this set of webpages were a little old, even when the pages were originally started, this can probably be applied to information given below on Sumeria. Which in turn might affect some dates for Ancient Egypt. Netsurfers then should regard this as a caution as they explore their topics.

Regarded by some as a date for Middle Bronze Age. Erection of lines of great stones, or standing stones, maybe in parallel lines, running east to west, in sets half a mile long, ending in a semi-circular set of stones. Or earlier, the Beaker People named for design of their drinking vessels , who know how to work copper, appear in France and the Low Countries, and British Isles.

They came from either Spain or Central Europe.

William Brownfield & Sons (Maker)

This is a do-it-yourself procedure. When fajitas are cooked cut into small slices. Perfect compliments for this divine composition are frijoles and Spanish rice. But they don’t call them skirt steaks in San Antonio–they call the fajitas. From what I was able to learn, it seems fajitas are something of a Southern Texas–or Tex-Mex-phenomenon.

Wood & Sons actually started potting in – the reference is to a distance member of the family – Ralph Wood, the eldest of three sons (Ralph, Moses, Enoch). Ralph was born in and achieved renown round about with his famous and now rare Staffordshire figures, and especially his .

Photo by Sharon Mitchell. Caddo carinated bottle form. Late Caddo jar form. Patton Engraved rectangular bowl, an usual form. Historic Caddo, after A. Click on image to see enlarged version and an alternative view looking from top. About years ago ca. Early Caddo pots were usually made of clay mixed with grog pulverized pottery sherds or sometimes bone.

The vessels varied considerably in form and decoration, but two forms are particularly characteristic of early Caddo pottery: Both bottles and bows were usually polished and decorated with engraved and incised patterns. There were many variations as well as other forms and design techniques, but bottles and carinated vessels remained part of the Caddo pottery tradition for about a thousand years, from A. We now know quite a bit about the Caddo pottery tradition and how it changed over time.

Archeologists have been amassing and studying ancient Caddo pottery for almost a century. Understanding or even just thoroughly describing the ancient Caddo pottery tradition is no easy matter.

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See below for photos of the many Woods patterns available from this site, including a great selection of tableware and vases from the s and 30s. Thomas Wood, his son, founded the present firm around , and it remained in the Wood family until , when it went into receivership and was acquired by the Yorke family. The firm finally ceased to exist in The Woods lineage also extends back to the famous 18thC Staffordshire potters Enoch and Ralph Woods, whose names and dates are given on many Woods marks.

Antique plates by Enoch Woods often featuring an eagle backstamp are now rare and fetch extremely high prices – none of the items on this website fall into this category. We specialise in the stylish tableware of the s and 30s, which were produced in striking colours.

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libby, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon (

Non-Technical – Jan 28, – by Bryant G. This article was first published in the Spring-Summer issue of Bible and Spade. During their time in Egypt, the Israelites were used as slave laborers to build the city of Rameses Ex 1: From these references, we can conclude that the Israelites spent the years of the Egyptian Sojourn in and around Rameses As we saw in our last article, he had been prepared f It is very interesti Tags Support Like this artice?

Our Ministry relies on the generosity of people like you. Every small donation helps us develop and publish great articles. From these references, we can conclude that the Israelites spent the years of the Egyptian Sojourn in and around Rameses. The name Rameses actually comes from a later period than the Israelite Sojourn.

This more familiar name was then used retrospectively by later scribes when copying the Biblical texts. Although the location of Rameses was in dispute for some years, that dispute has now been settled.

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Aaron, born in , was the finest mould maker in the Staffordshire Potteries. His claim upon our notice is twofold. He is the father of the even more celebrated Enoch Wood, whose fame rests not only upon his great skill as a modeller, but on his ability as a practical potter-and his keenness and enthusiasm as a collector of pottery.

In the latter year he bought out his partner and took into the business his three sons, when the firm became known as Enoch Wood EL Sons. Under this regime the firm achieved a great reputation, especially in America, for which market Enoch designed his admirable and extensive range of the most artistic blue and white plates with rich and finely disposed borders encircling views of England, of which there are known 71 centres! Enoch lived into his eighty-third year and died in

The new team had many years experience, both directly with Wood & Sons and in the Pottery Industry in general, and set about increasing the profile of the company.

To withstand the stresses of firing, a large pottery sculpture must be hollow and of an even thickness. There are two main ways of achieving this. Firing also protects the clay body against the effects of water. This forms a nonporous opaque body known as stoneware. In this section, earthenware is used to denote all pottery substances that are not vitrified and are therefore slightly porous and coarser than vitrified materials.

The line of demarcation between the two classes of vitrified materials—stoneware and porcelain—is extremely vague. In the Western world, porcelain is usually defined as a translucent substance—when held to the light most porcelain does have this property—and stoneware is regarded as partially vitrified material that is not translucent. The Chinese, on the other hand, define porcelain as any ceramic material that will give a ringing tone when tapped.

None of these definitions is completely satisfactory; for instance, some thinly potted stonewares are slightly translucent if they have been fired at a high temperature, whereas some heavily potted porcelains are opaque. Therefore, the application of the terms is often a matter of personal preference and should be regarded as descriptive, not definitive. Kinds of pottery Earthenware Earthenware was the first kind of pottery made, dating back about 9, years.

In the 21st century, it is still widely used. The earthenware body varies in colour from buff to dark red and from gray to black. The body can be covered or decorated with slip a mixture of clay and water in a creamlike consistency, used for adhesive and casting as well as for decoration , with a clear glaze, or with an opaque tin glaze.

History of Brazil

A more advanced variety of handmade pottery, hardfired and burnished, has proved to be as early as bc. The use of a red slip covering and molded ornament came a little later. Handmade pottery has been found at Ur, in Mesopotamia, below the clay termed the Flood deposit. Perhaps the most richly decorated pottery of the Near East, remarkable for its fine painting, comes from Susa Shushan in southwest Iran. The motifs are partly geometric, partly stylized but easily recognizable representations of waterfowl and running dogs, usually in friezes.

They are generally executed in dark colours on a light ground.

WILLIAM BALL of DEPTFORD, SUNDERLAND DEPTFORD POTTERY (cs) This would seem to be a late entry into the Sunderland pottery trade. And survived rather later than all .

During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1. The Quaternary includes only the last 1.

That is, land which had been raised. The wave ended in the Artic Ocean.

Radiocarbon dating

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Wood & Sons Ltd. Welcome to our Woods gallery! See below for photos of the many Woods patterns available from this site, including a great selection of tableware and vases from the s and 30s.

A slave owner punishes a slave in Brazil. This painting by Johann Moritz Rugendas depicts a scene below deck of a slave ship headed to Brazil. Rugendas was an eyewitness to the scene. Punishing slaves at Calabouco, in Rio de Janeiro , c. Slave rebellions were frequent until the practice of slavery was abolished in The most famous of the revolts was led by Zumbi dos Palmares.

The state he established, named the Quilombo dos Palmares, was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, and was “a region perhaps the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Bahia”. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonial power, the warriors of Palmares were expert in capoeira , a martial arts form developed in Brazil by African slaves in the 16th century. Baptized Francisco, Zumbi was taught the sacraments, learned Portuguese and Latin, and helped with daily mass.

Despite attempts to “civilize” him, Zumbi escaped in and, at the age of 15, returned to his birthplace. Zumbi became known for his physical prowess and cunning in battle and was a respected military strategist by the time he was in his early twenties.

Primitive Technology: Barrel Tiled Shed

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